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The Bulgars, however, who are of the same seven tribes [as the Khazars], are now becoming baptized [into Christianity]." - Christian of Stavelot, in Expositio in Matthaeum Evangelistam, composed circa 864 "Thus, it is clear that the false doctrine of Jesus in Rome, that of Moses among the Khazars, [and] that of Mani in [Uyghur-ruled] Turkistan removed the strength and bravery that they formerly possessed..." - Denkart, a Persian work "All of the Khazars are Jews.But they have been Judaized recently." - Ibn al-Faqih, a 10th century author "One of the Jews undertook the conversion of the Khazars, who are composed of many peoples, and they were converted by him and joined his religion.And they took upon themselves the difficult obligations enjoined by the law of the Torah, such as circumcision, the ritual ablutions, washing after a discharge of the semen, the prohibition of work on the Sabbath and during the feasts, the prohibition of eating the flesh of forbidden animals according to this religion, and so on." - Abd al-Jabbar ibn Muhammad al-Hamdani, in his early 11th century work The Establishment of Proofs for the Prophethood of Our Master Muhammad "The Khazars write Hebrew [letters]." - Muhammad ibn Ishaq an-Nadim of Baghdad, in his late 10th century Kitab al-Fihrist The Karaite writer Jacob ben Reuben referred to the Khazars in Sefer ha-Osher as "a single nation who do not bear the yoke of the exile, but are great warriors paying no tribute to the Gentiles." "The Khazar Jews came to the court of Prince Vladimir and said: 'We have heard that Bulgarians (Muslims) and Christians came to teach you their religion...We, however, believe in the one God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.' Vladimir asked them: 'What kind of law do you have?This happened recently in the days of the Abbasids....
According to most historical sources, Judaism was widespread among the Khazar inhabitants of the Khazar kingdom.
Unlike other treatments of the question, this essay uses recent discoveries, is meant to be objective, and is fully sourced so that you can be guaranteed of the authenticity of the information.
Although subsequent genetic evidence found no trace of Khazarian-related ancestry in any modern Jewish population, I'm keeping this essay online for the time being so you can analyze different writers' arguments for and against this proposition. The argument I committed to paper in 1997 or 1998 for publication in 1999 that Eastern European Jewish ancestry "is more complex than previously envisioned" has stood the test of time better than those other writers' arguments since we now have genetic evidence of Armenian, Greek, Italian, French, Berber, Slavic, and Chinese introgressions into the Eastern European Jewish gene pool whose core element is Israelite.
The greater part of these Khazars who use this script are Jews." - Ta'rikh-i Fakhr ad-Din Mubarak Shah, a Persian work composed in 1206 Khazaria is regarded as the "country of the Jews" (Zemlya Zhidovskaya) in Russian folk literature (byliny).
And the Schechter Letter informs us that some of the Alan people (neighbors of the Khazars to the south) also adopted Judaism (see Golb and Pritsak, Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century, pages 113 and 115).(See: "The Legend of Saint Zotikos According to Constantine Akropolites", ed. Miller, Analecta Bollandiana 112 (1994): 339-376.) In the early 10th century, the Jews of Kiev wrote a letter of recommendation on behalf of one of the members of their community, whose name was Yaakov bar Hanukkah.The letter is known as the Kievan Letter and was discovered in 1962 by Norman Golb of the University of Chicago.' They answered: 'God got angry with our fathers and therefore scattered us all over the world and gave our land to the Christians.' Vladimir asked: 'How is it that you can teach people Jewish law even while God rejected you and scattered you.