Hermaphrodite f date site
Note the melanin granules (black) in the connective tissue in D. Although some specimens' ovaries lack pigment (especially atrazine-treated animals), testes never have melanin in this species.
Histologically, the ovary is distinguished by the ovarian vesicle (hole in the center) along its entire length and the internal ring of connective tissue (in blue).
We hypothesize that atrazine induces aromatase and promotes the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.
This disruption in steroidogenesis likely explains the demasculinization of the male larynx and the production of hermaphrodites.
Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U. We examined the effects of atrazine on sexual development in African clawed frogs ().
Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine) is the most commonly used herbicide in the U. Here, we test the hypothesis that atrazine may interfere with metamorphosis and sex differentiation at ecologically relevant low doses via endocrine-disrupting mechanisms.
In addition, we examined plasma testosterone levels in sexually mature males.
Male suffered a 10-fold decrease in testosterone levels when exposed to 25 ppb atrazine.
Gonads of a control postmetamorphic male (A and C) and female (B and D) X. A and B show the entire dissected kidney–adrenal–gonadal complex preserved in Bouins' fixative. Arrows (in A and B) show the anterior and posterior ends of the animals' right gonads.
C and D show 8 μm of transverse cross-sections through the animals' right gonad stained with Mallory's trichrome stain. The yellow color in A and B is a result of fixation in Bouins' fixative. The ovary is distinguished by its greater length, lobed structure, and melanin granules.
Animals were anesthetized in 0.2% benzocaine (Sigma), assigned a unique identification number, fixed in Bouins' fixative, and preserved in 70% ethanol until further analysis.